Marx bicentenary to be marked by exhibitions, books – and pub crawls

Renewed interest in philosopher fires celebrations of 200 years since his birth on 5 May 1818

A Marx Memorial Library flag is flown at a May Day rally in London.






A Marx Memorial Library flag is flown at a May Day rally in London.
Photograph: Alamy

A spectre is haunting Europe in 2018 – to borrow from one of his catchier one-liners – the spectre of Karl Marx himself. Two hundred years after the philosopher’s birth, a small industry is gathering pace, from plans for major events in Trier, the city on the Moselle where he was born, to a new tour of the Manchester streets that he and Friedrich Engels walked as they discussed the condition of the city’s emerging working class. The bicentenary on 5 May will be marked with exhibitions, lectures, conferences, histories and novels.

The books are starting to pile up. Last month saw a new edition of Marxism – a Graphic Guide, a collaboration by philosophy lecturer Rupert Woodfin and comic book artist Oscar Zárate, while titles by heavyweight specialists on Marxism are on the way. They include a reprint of literary theorist Terry Eagleton’s bestselling Why Marx Was Right, along with a new edition of The Communist Manifesto – which starts with the “spectre” quotation – including an introduction by the former Greek finance minister Yanis Varoufakis.

Marx’s ideas, running through the Russian revolution to the present day, will be the focus of Marx and Marxism, a new book by one of Britain’s foremost historians of socialism, Gregory Claeys. The influence of the Labour party under Jeremy Corbyn – as well as factors such as reduced employment prospects and a desire to challenge austerity – are credited by Claeys as helping to engender a renewed interest in Marx, particularly among the young.

Marxism: A Graphic Guide



Marxism: A Graphic Guide. Photograph: Book jacket

“Marx’s prose may seem somewhat obtuse to modern readers,” Claeys said. “But Marx’s central premise – that the most obvious and extreme forms of oppression and exploitation can be removed from everyday life – retains a robustness and daring paralleled by no other thinkers in the modern period.”

Fact is accompanied by fiction. The Murder of Warren Street by Oxford university historian Marc Mulholland, published at the end of May, promises to tell the story of villain Emmanuel Barthélemy (“the man who wanted to kill Marx”).

Marx Returns, due out on 23 February and written by Jason Barker, is billed as combining historical fiction, psychological mystery, philosophy and extracts from Marx’s and Engels’s collected works to reimagine the life and times of Marx.

Among a plethora of gatherings and conferences being organised by the various families of the left, one of the most eagerly awaited is Marx 200, a major conference due to take place at Soas University of London and organised by the Marx Memorial Library.

Shadow chancellor John McDonnell – arguably Britain’s best-known Marxist – will speak on the theme of “Into the 21st century: Marxism as a force for change today” alongside guests from around the world, including Sitaram Yechury, the general secretary of the Communist party of India (Marxist), and Luo Wendong, a professor from the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

John McDonnell.



John McDonnell. Photograph: Darren Staples/Reuters

Meirian Jump, archivist at the memorial library, said interest had increased in Marxism in the past couple of years, while numbers attending lectures on Marxism and conducting research in the library’s reading room have risen in recent months.

“In the autumn our venue reached capacity and we had to turn people away from our lectures celebrating 150 years since the publication of Das Kapital,” Jump said. “It was noticeable that a large number of those queuing outside Marx House were young people and students.”

Away from the political calls to arms or Marxist think-ins, exhibitions include the Karl and Eleanor Marx Treasures Gallery, from May to early August at the British Library. The display aims to explore the role that the British Museum reading room, a predecessor institution of the British Library, played in the life and work of Marx and his daughter, a writer and political activist in her own right.

Items on display will include correspondence by Marx, his family and Friedrich Engels, covering both personal and political affairs, as well as rare copies of first editions of Marx’s writings, several of which he donated to the library. Among these is a copy of the first French translation of Das Kapital, believed to feature annotations in Marx’s own hand.

To the likely chagrin of committed Marxists and eurosceptics, the distinctly un-Marxist figure of European Commission president Jean-Claude Juncker will open a series of exhibitions in Trier. Visitors will be able to view a new permanent exhibition at the Karl-Marx-Haus Museum, and a bronze figure of Marx donated by China.

Those unable to make the trip might instead consider the Marx 200th birthday walking tour in Manchester, where Engels lived on and off for almost 30 years and was visited by Marx.

“We’ve been doing Marx-themed walks for a while. He and Engels were great drinkers so we did one based on the pubs they used to go to, and there was a great response,” said Ed Glinert of New Manchester Walks.

“You get a real range of people. I took the Chinese consul around one time, for example. We don’t get too many Americans, though.”

As for what Marx would make of it all, Claeys asserted he had “a fine, robust sense of humour” and would certainly have mocked many who have taken up his name over the past 150 years.

“He would, I think, be a ‘deep green’ thinker who would advocate sustainable development, an end to planned obsolescence and production based on the profit rather than global human need,” he said.

Would-be parents moving house to get free IVF on NHS

Doctor at hospital with UK’s largest sperm bank says discriminatory funding system behind relocation

Reproductive scientist






A reproductive scientist checks embryos and sperm at the UK’s largest sperm bank at Saint Mary’s hospital in Manchester.
Photograph: Christopher Thomond for the Guardian

Many would-be parents are moving house in order to access free IVF on the NHS, sometimes saving themselves £10,000, according to the lead fertility doctor at the UK’s largest sperm bank.

Dr Raj Mathur, a consultant gynaecologist at Saint Mary’s hospital in Manchester, said he “constantly” saw patients moving house and/or GPs in order to get more free IVF cycles.

Mathur, whose clinic accepts NHS patients from 23 clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) across the north-west of England, said the geographical differences in funding were discriminatory.

“It’s a bloody nightmare, localism in the NHS. I’m all for centralisation. It’s a scandal because it should really be decided by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence [Nice] … They came up with national guidelines but everywhere in the country has its own version of those criteria,” he said.

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Nice recommends that women aged under 40 should be offered three cycles if they have been trying to conceive for two years. Cost-cutting CCGs are defying advice set out by the government and NHS advisers.

“Some CCGs will specify that both should be childless; others will specify that there should be no children in that relationship … In my clinic Mrs Manchester will get one cycle and Mrs Rochdale will get three,” Mathur said.

Some borders between Greater Manchester boroughs are so tight that patients can be one house away from qualifying for extra NHS fertility treatment. Some streets in Bolton, which offers one free IVF cycle, turn into Bury (three free cycles) across the road.

Mathur said people constantly move house to register with a GP in another CCG: “You set up a game and people will play the game.”

Greg Horne, a consultant embryologist at Saint Mary’s, agreed: “It’s like if you try to find a house in the catchment area of a particular school.”

The average market price for a single cycle of IVF in a private clinic is £3,348, research by Opinium found. With just one in three cycles resulting in pregnancy, many patients spend in excess of £10,000 on three attempts or more.

“It’s discriminatory. It’s a classic example of a postcode lottery, it goes against evidence-based guidelines,” said Mathur, who is also secretary of the British Fertility Society.

Provision is being reduced as a cost-cutting measure in some areas and has been cut altogether in others. Mathur’s patients in most parts of Cheshire used to have three IVF cycles funded but as of last April are offered one.

Saint Mary’s, which was the first hospital in the UK to offer an NHS IVF service, is home to the UK’s biggest sperm bank. Working in partnership with a private American company, Fairfax Cyrobank, sperm from 100 American donors is held in a depot in Manchester.

The sperm is frozen in liquid nitrogen and flown over in “dry shippers”, which look like metal milk churns. It is then inserted directly into a woman’s uterus via a small catheter through the cervix – a process known as Intrauterine Insemination, IUI, which has a one-in-10 success rate – or is used for IVF where a woman’s egg is fertilised in a laboratory and is then returned to her womb as an embryo.

Like most fertility clinics, Saint Mary’s has faced a severe shortage in donor sperm since a 2005 change in the law giving children the right to know the identity of their donor once they reach 18. Donors cannot be paid more than basic expenses and can contribute to a maximum of 10 families.

In recent years, the hospital had just three regular donors on its books, all of whom were white. This was a problem as 20-25% of the hospital’s fertility patients are British Asians.

In Sunni Islam, sperm donation is forbidden “… so they wouldn’t have told people it’s a donor child, so it’s very tricky. There’s a red-haired gene that pops up in the caucasian population of the UK, for example,” said Mathur.

In 30 years working at the clinic, Horne said he could recall just one Asian donor. Ten of Fairfax’s current US donors are of Asian heritage and all have accepted that their donor children may contact them in adulthood.

Faye Penny is the donor coordinator at Saint Mary’s, and sits down with each patient to look through Fairfax’s online catalogue. They can search by detailed criteria including physical characteristics, personality, baby photos and can even hear his voice. “Most straight couples don’t want to see the photos,” said Penny. “Often all they want to know is the hair and eye colour and the ethnicity.”

Donor 4848 is 175cm tall and 90kg and is of Indian origin. His favourite animal is a hamster, he is Muslim, likes going to the theatre and reading.

Donor 5319 is described as: “Shy at first, he is insightful with a warm heart and caring spirit. He loves spending time around children and seeing the potential of the world’s future first-hand … Our staff consider him attractive, with a handsome face and a tall, athletic build.”

Penny believes that being able to offer patients a choice of donor without making them wait is important. “Previously, you didn’t know the donor was going to be available the next time someone came in, because they can only make 10 families.”

According to the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (Hefa), more than 300,000 children in the UK have been born from licensed fertility treatment since 1991. Of those, at least 15,000 were born at Saint Mary’s in Manchester.